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 North Korea Criminal Code, art. 27, 2012. Secrecy has increased under the regime of Kim Jong-un, and experts indicate that the North Korean “rumor mill” is “out of control.” . (This question was last updated on June 3, 2019.). La fusillade est la seconde méthode la plus employée dans le monde : le Bélarus, la Chine, la Corée du Nord, la Somalie, le Yémen, et Taiwan optent pour cette façon de faire.  The Library of Congress, A Country Study: North Korea, The Judiciary, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+kp0162), Jun., 1993. - Assault: A person who deliberately inflicts a severe injury upon another person is subject to the death penalty, if the case is considered to be “especially grave.”   Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2011, p. 24, ACT 50/001/2012, Mar.  U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Note Verbale dated 11 January 2008, U.N. Doc. CCPR/CO/72/PRK, Aug. 27, 2001. Cette méthode, utilisée la première fois pour la mise à mort d’un Chinois, Gee Jon , exécuté pour assassinat le 8 février 1924 au Nevada, s’est généralisée dans de nombreux États de … . Plan du site.  3, Dec. 19, 2007. 26, 2014. - In a particularly vague provision, even by North Korean standards, an “especially serious” case of being a “scoundrel” is punishable by death.  The Military Security Control Centre of the North Korean People’s Army conducts indoor executions. The real execution figure is almost certainly much higher.  However, lawyers are reportedly assigned only to those accused of nonpolitical crimes. 29, Mar.  In 2012, the U.N. Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in North Korea indicated that the addendum functioned as a complement to the Penal Code.  Amnesty Intl., North Korea: Torture, Death Penalty and Abductions, ASA 24/003/2009, Aug. 2, 2009.  North Korea Criminal Code, art.  U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in North Korea, para. 3, 1950, last amended Oct. 19, 2009. 26, 2014.  Ha Yoon Ah, Medical practitioner was executed in Samjiyon city, Ryanggang Province for medical malpractice… even the residents are ‘in shock,’ Daily NK, https://perma.cc/ZC5N-VG5H, Jan. 8, 2020. Oui.  Amnesty Intl., North Korea: Political Prison Camps, Camp conditions in Yodok, ASA 24/001/2011, May 3, 2011. Although North Korea has lay people’s assessors in the people’s courts (which function as trial courts), they are elected by the organs of state power and therefore do not function as independent juries. , Trahison.Treason, which includes defection and political opposition, is punishable by death.  Mark Warren, Foreigners Under Sentence of Death Worldwide, http://users.xplornet.com/~mwarren/world.html, Jan. 19, 2013. 16- 17, U.N. Doc.  U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. David Johnson & Franklin Zimring, The Next Frontier, Oxford University Press, 2009.  North Korea Addendum to the Criminal Code for Ordinary Crimes, art.  It is impossible to predict what kinds of “offenses” will be prosecuted as death-eligible, or indeed what legal provisions lead to convictions and death sentences.  The Library of Congress, A Country Study: North Korea, The Judiciary, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+kp0162), Jun., 1993.  Shubhra Shalini, North Korean Inmate Executed By Firing Squad For Killing Prison Guard, International Business Times, https://www.ibtimes.com/north-korean-inmate-executed-firing-squad-killing-prison-guard-2753387, Jan. 17, 2019. 2010: A ruling party official was executed in 2010 for the crime of “conspiring to infiltrate the ranks of revolutionaries to destroy the national economy.”  Pak Nam Gi, former finance director of the ruling Workers’ Party, was shot in Pyongyang in March 2010 after being convicted of treason for “ruining the national economy as the son of a big landlord who infiltrated the ranks of revolutionaries” by overseeing North Korea’s currency revaluation in 2009. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. , Non.  U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Note Verbale dated 11 March 2011, U.N. Doc.  The Chosun Ilbo, N. Korean Vice Defense Chief Executed by Firing Squad, http://english.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2012/10/24/2012102400755.html, Oct. 24, 2012. 12, Mar. 89, U.N. Doc.  North Korea also rejected all recommendations by the Human Rights Council to establish a moratorium on executions with a view to abolishing the death penalty, end all public and extrajudicial executions, reduce the number of crimes punishable by death and respect minimum international standards such as the right to a fair trial, the limitation of the death penalty to the most serious crimes and the non-application of the death penalty to minors, pregnant women and persons suffering from mental diseases. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.  U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the commission of inquiry on human rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, para.  North Korea Criminal Code, art. 26, 2014.  This practice is most severe when the state accuses an individual of opposing its policies or opinions. Il s'agit d'un meurtre commis par l'Etat avec préméditation et de sang-froid. Also, the State makes every member of a household accountable for the conduct of his immediate kin (although it is unlikely that the state executes kin for a relative’s crimes), while some criminal suspects escape punishment because of their family background.  Amnesty Intl., North Korea: Political Prison Camps, Camp conditions in Yodok, ASA 24/001/2011, May 3, 2011. 73rd session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, para. In practice, the government executes individuals without meaningful recourse to judicial process. Seoul, 120-012 South Korea  U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. The Chosun Ilbo, Kim Jong-un’s Ex-Girlfirend ‘Shot by Firing Squad’, http://english.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2013/08/29/2013082901412.html, Aug. 29, 2013. 62-86, Sep. 8, 1948, last amended Apr. of State, 2012 Human Rights Report: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2012/eap/204210.htm, Apr. CCPR/CO/72/PRK, Aug. 27, 2001. Meurtre avec circonstances aggravantes.The Korea Institute for National Unification, based in South Korea, reported that a man was executed for killing a preteen girl and eating her flesh in December 2009 during Pyongyang’s currency reform that led to massive inflation and food shortages. A/HRC/13/13, Jan 4, 2010. 18-19, U.N. Doc.  Although media reports of death sentences and executions declined, the figure appears to be an underestimate of the actual number. 2012: In January 2012, North Korea’s Vice Minister of the People’s Armed Forces was reportedly executed by a firing squad after being convicted of drinking alcohol during the mourning period for former leader Kim Jong-il. Marie-Orange Rivé-Lasan, maître de conférence à l'Université Paris Diderot, a participé à la mission d'enquête de la FIDH sur la peine de mort en Corée du Nord. 10, 2019.  Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2018, p. 24, ACT 50/9870/2019, Apr. , Personnes ayant un trouble mental.The Criminal Code excludes from criminal liability generally people who commit crimes while unable to understand their actions or unable to control themselves because of a chronic mental disease or temporary mental disorder. For example, it appears that people have been killed on the spot for violating COVID-19 regulations, under authority of an order by Kim Jong-Un.  In his February 2013 report, the Special Rapporteur indicated that the UN General Assembly has repeatedly expressed concern at the application of capital punishment for political and religious reasons. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/eap/135995.htm, Mar. Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar.  Alex Martin, North tripled executions to quell outcry, The Japan Times, http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2011/02/09/national/north-tripled-executions-to-quell-outcry/, Feb. 9, 2011. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Sep. 20, 2013. 6(g), U.N. Doc.  Also in November, a female fortune teller was reportedly executed by firing squad for engaging in “superstition-based activities” for pay. Euan McKirdy, North Korea executed 5 security officials, South Korea says, http://www.cnn.com/2017/02/28/asia/north-korea-officials-executed/, CNN, Feb. 28, 2017.  Amnesty Intl., North Korea: Imminent execution, ASA 24/001/2007, Feb. 15, 2007. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Sep. 17, 2013. 13, Mar. Amnesty International s’oppose à la peine de mort en toutes circonstances, quelles que soient la nature du crime commis, les caractéristiques de son auteur ou la méthode … , Crimes économiques n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.Five civilians were publicly executed for illegal cattle trading in July 2010. , At least 30.  One toilet is shared by 200 prisoners, no blankets are available in the winter, and public executions are carried out in front of prisoners. There is no reliable source of data regarding death row numbers or executions in North Korea and estimates vary. 62-86, Sep. 8, 1948, last amended Apr. La peine de mortviole un droit des plus fondamentaux, le droit à la vie. ?…’ ??? 30, 2010.  North Korea rejected all recommendations. It has voted against all of the UNGA’s moratorium resolutions on the death penalty  and also signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation four times in a row. Fax: +1-202-758-2348 30, 2010. 22, Dec. 19, 2007.  10, 2013.  The Guardian, North Korea has carried out 1,400 public executions since 2000, http://www.theguardian.com/law/2015/jul/06/north-korea-public-executions, Jul. In November 2018, a man was reportedly tried publicly in an empty lot and immediately publicly executed after being found guilty of multiple rapes.  Elizabeth Shim, Public executions on the rise in North Korea as Kim Jong Un worries about safety, http://www.upi.com/Top_News/World-News/2016/10/20/Public-executions-on-the-rise-in-North-Korea-as-Kim-Jong-Un-worries-about-safety/5961476970354/, UPI, Oct. 20, 2016. ? Because of the secrecy surrounding capital punishment, we are not able to offer a reliable estimate.  He also pointed out the vagueness of the terms used in death penalty provisions that allow for the imposition of the death penalty to be subjective and arbitrary. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, p. 20-21, U.N. Doc. Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 166, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008. Because of the secrecy surrounding capital punishment, we are not able to offer a reliable estimate. Alex Martin, North tripled executions to quell outcry, The Japan Times, http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2011/02/09/national/north-tripled-executions-to-quell-outcry/, Feb. 9, 2011. 23, Dec. 19, 2007. Ahn Myong-Chol, un ancien garde de camp de prisonniers, a raconté ce qu'il a vécu pendant huit ans.  North Korea Addendum to the Criminal Code for Ordinary Crimes, art.  North Korea Criminal Code, art. 27, 2012.  Such abuse seriously undermines the legitimacy of any confession or conviction. This is the number of executions reported in the media (which often obtain their information from South Korean sources), but media reports are not always accurate. 11, 2017.  Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2013, p. 25, ACT 50/001/2014, Mar.  Ha Yoon Ah, Drug dealer executed in South Hamgyong Province, Daily NK, https://www.dailynk.com/english/drug-dealer-executed-in-south-hamgyong-province/, Apr.  ?? A/73/589/Add.2, Dec. 4, 2018. http://eng.nkhumanrights.or.kr/main.htm 11, 2010. 12, 2018. USA, North Korea Human Rights, http://www.amnestyusa.org/all-countries/north-korea/page.do?id=1011213, last accessed Sep. 20, 2013.  U.N. ICCPR, Human Rights Committee, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 40 of the Covenant, Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee, p. 3, U.N. Doc.  Kim Yoo Jin, Serial rapist publicly executed in North Korea, Daily NK, https://www.dailynk.com/english/serial-rapist-publicly-executed-in-north-korea/, Dec. 10, 2018. En 2016, au moins 23 États ont procédé à des exécutions tandis que 55 p…  David Johnson & Franklin Zimring, The Next Frontier, p. 362, Oxford University Press, 2009. North Korea Addendum to the Criminal Code for Ordinary Crimes, arts.  North Korea Addendum to the Criminal Code for Ordinary Crimes, arts. There are no signs that North Korea will cease or decrease its use of capital punishment.  North Korean authorities often use torture to extract confessions, and many persons have been executed without receiving the benefit of a fair trial  – or indeed, any trial at all.  Yaron Steinbuch, North Korean Official Reportedly Executed for Breaking Coronavirus Quarantine, New York Post, https://nypost.com/2020/02/13/north-korean-official-reportedly-executed-for-breaking-coronavirus-quarantine/, Feb. 13, 2020. , According to the South Korea Bar Association, North Korean inmates are forced to work for 12 to 15 hours a day throughout the year.  Amnesty reports that executions were carried out for murder and cannibalism in 2013. 18, 2010. 90, U.N. Doc. Monde La peine de mort dans le “Rapport mondial 2020” Human Rights Watch . 6, Dec. 19, 2007. A/71/1047, Sep. 13, 2017.  North Korea Addendum to the Criminal Code for Ordinary Crimes, art. 62-86, Sep. 8, 1948, last amended Apr.  Amnesty Intl., North Korea: Political Prison Camps, Punishment and torture in the camps, ASA 24/001/2011, May 3, 2011. ??? Executions are carried out for crimes even where that crime is not subject to a death sentence under domestic law.  North Korea Addendum to the Criminal Code for Ordinary Crimes, art.  Amnesty Intl.  Also, in January 2019, a man was executed by firing squad at the Hoeryong Jongori correctional labor camp in front of other inmates. The Database Center for North Korean Rights reported that five people involved in illegal cattle trading were publicly executed in July 2010. Il était le dernier État américain à imposer cette méthode aux condamnés à mort.