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Son corps fut placé dans le mausolée d'Hadrien, une colonne lui fut dédiée sur le Campus Martius, et le temple qu'il avait construit en 141 dans le … [59] Also during his reign the governor of Upper Germany, probably Caius Popillius Carus Pedo, built new fortifications in the Agri Decumates, advancing the Limes Germanicus fifteen miles forward in his province and neighboring Raetia. Husband of Rupilia Faustina: Levick (2014), p. 163. [82], Of the public transactions of this period there is only the scantiest of information, but, to judge by what is extant, those twenty-two years were not remarkably eventful in comparison to those before and after the reign. Auréus 7,21 g. Rome (148 - 149). [114][119], Furthermore, a piece of Republican-era Roman glassware has been found at a Western Han tomb in Guangzhou along the South China Sea, dated to the early 1st century BC. Vidéosurveillance : En quoi les caméras de surveillance sont-elles indispensables . Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. Sa famille est originaire de … La lettre d’Antonin concernant les Chrétiens ne constitue donc ni un blanc-seing, ni un certificat de bonne vie et mœurs pour l’ensemble de la communauté chrétienne, loin de là ! Antoninus Pius (/ˌæntəˈnaɪnəs ˈpaɪəs/; Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius; 19 September 86 – 7 March 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. Esclavage et travail forcé, First Apology of Justin Martyr, Chapter LXVIII, A. Mischcon, Abodah Zara, p.10a Soncino, 1988. Par son père (qui fut consul en 89) et son grand-père … Les frontières de l’Empire furent défendues avec vigilance, mais sans provocations hasardeuses. [34] Epigraphical and prosopographical research has revealed that Antoninus' imperial ruling team centered around a group of closely knit senatorial families, most of them members of the priestly congregation for the cult of Hadrian, the sodales Hadrianales. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Antonin le Pieux (19 septembre 86 à Lanuvium, Latium – 7 mars 161) est un empereur romain, qui régna de 138 à 161. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP XVI Buste lauré, drapé et cuirassé d’Antonin le Pieux à droite. We hope it would be a positive one, as we work hard to provide you with 5-star service. Rome. [3][6] The Aurelii Fulvi were an Aurelian family settled in Nemausus (modern Nîmes). 138 – 161 In one inscription honoring Antoninus, erected by Legio II Augusta, which participated in the building of the Wall, a relief showing four naked prisoners, one of them beheaded, seems to stand for some actual warfare. Il est vrai que l’Empire, à cette époque, avait atteint son extension géographique maximale. A successful military campaign in southern Scotland early in his reign resulted in the construction of the Antonine Wall. Bury, however estimable the man, Antoninus was hardly a great statesman. [29] He then greatly increased his reputation by his conduct as proconsul of Asia, probably during 134–135. Contrairement à Trajan et Hadrien, ses prédécesseurs, il accomplit toute sa carrière dans … This splitting had to do with the division of imperial properties into two parts. Antoninus in many ways was the ideal of the landed gentleman praised not only by ancient Romans, but also by later scholars of classical history, such as Edward Gibbon[125] or the author of the article on Antoninus Pius in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. Sa famille est originaire … He offered hefty financial grants for rebuilding and recovery of various Greek cities after two serious earthquakes: the first, circa 140, which affected mostly Rhodes and other islands; the second, in 152, which hit Cyzicus (where the huge and newly built Temple to Hadrian was destroyed[66]), Ephesus, and Smyrna. [78] Also, Antoninus left behind him a reputation for stinginess and was probably determined not to leave his personal property to be "swallowed up by the demands of the imperial throne". [88] Mostly, he favoured the principle of favor libertatis, giving the putative freedman the benefit of the doubt when the claim to freedom was not clearcut. L’historien ecclésiastique Eusèbe de Césarée nous a conservé un fragment de lettre où le bon Antonin donne ses instructions à ce sujet : « De nombreux gouverneurs de province avaient écrit à mon divin Père (= Hadrien) au sujet de ces gens (= les Chrétiens). Français : Colonne d'Antonin le Pieux Column of Antoninus Pius Upload media Wikipedia: Instance of: sculpture, victory column: Commemorates: Antoninus Pius; Material used: marble; … [48], Although Antonine's Wall was, in principle, much shorter (37 miles in length as opposed to 73) and at first sight more defensible than Hadrian's Wall, the additional area that it enclosed within the Empire was barren, with land use for grazing already in decay. Son buste nu à droite. According to the German historian H.G. An anecdote in the Historia Augusta biography, where Antoninus replies to Faustina – who complained about his stinginess – that "we have gained an empire [and] lost even what we had before" possibly relates to Antoninus' actual concerns at the creation of the res privata. ANTONIN LE PIEUX. Pour survivre et prospérer, Rome devait impérativement rester une force conquérante, qui s’ouvrait de nouveau marchés, accaparait de nouvelles richesses, ouvrait et contrôlait des routes commerciales. Born into a senatorial family, Antoninus held various offices during the reign of emperor Hadrian, who adopted him as his son and successor shortly before his death. Nevertheless, Antoninus assumed power without opposition. ANTONIN LE PIEUX (25/02/138-7/03/161) Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Auguste (10/07/138-7/03/161) Antonin est né le 19 septembre 86 à Lanuvium. Arc d'Antonin le Pieux est un arc et arc de triomphe / monumental. Michael Grant agrees that it is possible that had Antoninus acted decisively sooner (it appears that, on his death bed, he was preparing a large-scale action against the Parthians), the Parthians might have been unable to choose their own time, but current evidence is not conclusive. Alors, parler d’apogée, tout est relatif ! Firstly, the fiscus itself – or patrimonium, meaning the properties of the "Crown", the hereditary properties of each succeeding person that sat on the throne, transmitted to his successors in office,[74] regardless of their previous membership in the imperial family. Faustina bore Antoninus four children, two sons and two daughters. [93] He also asserted the principle that the trial was to be held, and the punishment inflicted, in the place where the crime had been committed. [20] He had various coins with her portrait struck in her honor. Dans tous les domaines, l’empereur se contenta de gérer l’Empire en « bon père de famille », sans faiblesse mais sans génie. [60] In the East, Roman suzerainty over Armenia was retained by the choice in AD 140 of Arsacid scion Sohaemus as client king. Ronald Syme, "Antonine Relatives: Ceionii and Vettuleni". 5G : Opportunité technologique ou danger sanitaire ? Nous venons de voir qu’Antonin interdisait qu’on poursuivît les Chrétiens sauf s’ils étaient reconnus coupables de complot contre l’État. [68] Ephesus was specially favoured by Antoninus, who confirmed and upheld its distinction of having two temples for the imperial cult (neocorate), therefore having first place in the list of imperial honor titles, surpassing both Smyrna and Pergamon. [11], Some time between 110 and 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina the Elder. A column was dedicated to Antoninus on the Campus Martius,[12] and the temple he had built in the Forum in 141 to his deified wife Faustina was rededicated to the deified Faustina and the deified Antoninus. In the night he vomited; he had a fever the next day. Dernière chose. [14] They were: When Faustina died in 141, Antoninus was greatly distressed. Dès lors, si on dénonce comme Chrétien une personne connue pour être un loyal sujet de l’Empire, cet individu doit nécessairement, impérativement et immédiatement être absous ! [9], Antoninus’ father had no other children and died shortly after his 89 ordinary consulship. Antonin le Pieux Il est tout aussi exact que, sous Antonin, aucune guerre ne fut déclarée et qu’aucune révolte majeure n’éclata dans les provinces. He mitigated the use of torture in examining slaves by certain limitations. Faustina was a beautiful woman, and despite (basically unproven) rumours about her character, it is clear that Antoninus cared for her deeply.[13]. Tout sur ANTONIN LE PIEUX : sa tombe, des infos sur sa vie, des photos de Antonin le Pieux, des vidéos, des citations, la biographie de Antonin le Pieux... Participez à l'amélioration des infos sur Antonin le Pieux … He started nibbling on dry bread to give him the strength to stay awake through his morning receptions. Simon Hornblower, Antony Spawforth, Esther Eidinow (2014): Emmanuelle Collas-Heddeland, "Le culte impérial dans la compétition des titres sous le Haut-Empire. [61], Nevertheless, Antoninus was virtually unique among emperors in that he dealt with these crises without leaving Italy once during his reign,[62] but instead dealt with provincial matters of war and peace through their governors or through imperial letters to the cities such as Ephesus (of which some were publicly displayed). [19] In honour of her memory, he asked the Senate to deify her as a goddess, and authorised the construction of a temple to be built in the Roman Forum in her name, with priestesses serving in her temple. [106] He ate Alpine Gruyere cheese at dinner quite greedily. Ne démontre-t-elle pas que la « religion » chrétienne est restée fidèle aux cérémonies juives, beaucoup plus longtemps que les historiens chrétiens ne l’admettent communément ? He had a close friendship with "Antoninus", possibly Antoninus Pius,[98] who would consult Rabbi Judah on various worldly and spiritual matters. ). [7] Titus Aurelius Fulvius was the son of a senator of the same name, who, as legate of Legio III Gallica, had supported Vespasian in his bid to the Imperial office and been rewarded with a suffect consulship, plus an ordinary one under Domitian in 85. Avec lui, Rome connaît un âge d'or : pas de … Marcus Galerius Aurelius Antoninus (died before 138); his sepulchral inscription has been found at the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome. Au cours du règne d’Antonin le Pieux (138- 161), une grande partie de la ville fut reconstruite. Other opinions cited suggest "Antoninus" was. Aurelius Antonius, dit Antonin le Pieux (19 septembre 86 - 7 mars 161) Antonin le Pieux est un empereur romain qui règne de 138 à 161. Heinz Bellen, "Die 'Verstaatlichung' des Privatvermögens der römische Kaiser". [115][116][117] The Roman mission came from the south (therefore probably by sea), entering China by the frontier province of Jiaozhi at Rinan or Tonkin (present-day northern Vietnam). [32]There seems to have been some opposition to Antoninus' appointment on the part of other potential claimants, among them his former consular colleague Lucius Catilius Severus, then Prefect of the city. Cependant, l’empereur ne l’adopta et ne fit de lui son successeur qu’à la condition expresse qu’à son tour, lui-même adopte Lucius Verus et le futur Marc Aurèle. a large part of Ephesus was rebuilt. As Antoninus Pius died in 161, leaving the empire to his adoptive son Marcus Aurelius (Antoninus), and the envoy arrived in 166, confusion remains about who sent the mission given that both Emperors were named 'Antoninus'. Originaire du Latium, son surnom, Antonin le Pieux, lui vient de ses qualités morales, ainsi que de la piété filiale dont il a su faire preuve … [83] One of his chief concerns was to having local communities conform their legal procedures to existing Roman norms: in a case concerning repression of banditry by local police officers ("irenarchs", Greek for "peace keepers") in Asia Minor, Antoninus ordered that these officers should not treat suspects as already condemned, and also keep a detailed copy of their interrogations, to be used in the possibility of an appeal to the Roman governor. He further created a charity which he founded and called it Puellae Faustinianae or Girls of Faustina, which assisted destitute girls [12] of good family. He is known for having increasingly formalized the official cult offered to the Great Mother, which from his reign onwards included a bull sacrifice, a taurobolium, formerly only a private ritual, now being also performed for the sake of the Emperor's welfare. Beaucoup ont eu aussi recours à moi à leur sujet, et je leur ai répondu en suivant la décision de mon Père. Par son père Titus Aurelius Fulvus, consul en 89, et son grand-père Titus Aurelius Fulvus, consul en 85, il est originaire de Nemausus (Nîmes). [38], His reign was the most peaceful in the entire history of the Principate,[39] notwithstanding the fact that there were several military disturbances throughout the Empire in his time. Instead of plundering to support his prodigality, he emptied his private treasury to assist distressed provinces and cities, and everywhere exercised rigid economy (hence the nickname κυμινοπριστης "cummin-splitter"). Or, la tradition chrétienne veut qu’en 155, juste au moment où des communautés juives (judéo-chrétiennes, christo-judaïques) se soulevaient en Asie mineure, le pape Pie Ier ait été martyrisé à Rome. Et puis surtout, parce qu’il aurait légèrement forcé la main audit Sénat qui renâclait à accorder les honneurs divins à Hadrien, son père adoptif. [35] Two other reasons for this title are that he would support his aged father-in-law with his hand at Senate meetings, and that he had saved those men that Hadrian, during his period of ill-health, had condemned to death. Image not available. They had all heard about the spirit of justice held by this great emperor, justice that was heightened by his handsome and grave countenance, and his slim and vigorous figure." [70] Antoninus also created a chair for the teaching of rhetoric in Athens.[71]. During the rule of Antoninus Pius (138-161 C.E.) Il a été empereur de 138 à 161. [51], It has been therefore speculated that the invasion of Lowland Scotland and the building of the wall had to do mostly with internal politics, that is, offering Antoninus an opportunity to gain some modicum of necessary military prestige at the start of his reign. Antonin le Pieux … Au point de vue religieux, Antonin « le Pieux » commença par abroger les lois d’Hadrien qui interdisaient la religion juive. En l’occurrence celle des Hébreux d’Égypte. [77] While still a private citizen, Antoninus had increased his personal fortune greatly by mean of various legacies, the consequence – we are told – of his caring scrupulously for his relatives. H.G. Due to the outbreak of the Antonine epidemic and wars against northern Germanic tribes, the reign of Marcus Aurelius was forced to alter the focus of foreign policies, and matters relating to the Far East were increasingly abandoned in favour of those directly concerning the Empire's survival. Après le plus long règne depuis Auguste, dépassant de quelques mois celui de Tibère, Antonin le Pieux meurt le 7 mars 161 emporté par des fièvres à Lorium en Etrurie, à 19 km de Rome. [37], There are no records of any military related acts in his time in which he participated. Antonin le Pieux est un empereur romain, né le 19 septembre 86 à Lanuvium, dans le Latium, mort le 7 mars 161. [79], The res privata lands could be sold and/or given away, while the patrimonium properties were regarded as public. He was one of the Five Good Emperors in the Nerva–Antonine dynasty.[3]. Husband of Ceionia Fabia: Levick (2014), p. 164. [111] If his funeral followed the pattern of past funerals, his body would have been incinerated on a pyre at the Campus Martius, while his spirit would rise to the gods' home in the heavens. [7], Immediately after Hadrian's death, Antoninus approached Marcus and requested that his marriage arrangements be amended: Marcus' betrothal to Ceionia Fabia would be annulled, and he would be betrothed to Faustina, Antoninus' daughter, instead. Suetonius a possible lover of Sabina: One interpretation of, Lover of Hadrian: Lambert (1984), p. 99 and. Husband of Ulpia Marciana: Levick (2014), p. 161. Jusqu’à cette époque, ce prosélytisme concurrençait fortement, et souvent avec grand succès, la propagande chrétienne. R/ l’Équité debout à gauche, tenant une balance et une corne d’abondance. This style of government was highly praised by his contemporaries and by later generations. Opens image gallery. Hildegard Temporini, ed.. Aubert, Jean-Jacques. 10 Juillet 138 - 7 Mars 161. Except where otherwise noted, the notes below indicate that an individual's parentage is as shown in the above family tree. On the whole, according to Grant, Marcus Aurelius' eulogistic picture of Antoninus seems deserved, and Antoninus appears to have been a conservative and nationalistic (although he respected and followed Hadrian's example of Philhellenism moderately) Emperor who was not tainted by the blood of either citizen or foe, combined and maintained Numa Pompilius' good fortune, pacific dutifulness and religious scrupulousness, and whose laws removed anomalies and softened harshnesses. La biographie d'Antonin le Pieux par Julius Capitolinus est encore plus maigre que celle d'Hadrien par Spartianus. ", "Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138–161) De Imperatoribus Romanis", L. Catilius Severus Iulianus Claudius Reginus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antoninus_Pius&oldid=993829549, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (birth), Imperator Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius. [67] These cities received from Antoninus the usual honorific accolades, such as when he commanded that all governors of Asia should enter the province, when taking office, by way of Ephesus. Le projet est situé à/en Sbeïtla, Tunisie.Le style architecturale est romain. [5] His reign is notable for the peaceful state of the Empire, with no major revolts or military incursions during this time, and for his governing without ever leaving Italy. According to the Talmud (Avodah Zarah 10a–b), Rabbi Judah was very wealthy and greatly revered in Rome. Instead of stirring up persecution against the Christians, he extended to them the strong hand of his protection throughout the empire. Titus Aurelius Fulvius Antoninus Pius, plus connu sous le nom d'Antonin le Pieux, naquit à Lanuvium en 86 de notre ère dans une famille de riches propriétaires. all disputes, if any, should be resolved peacefully. [8] The link between Antoninus' family and their home province explains the increasing importance of the post of Proconsul of Gallia Narbonensis during the late Second Century. Antonin le Pieux, Aureus, Rome, AD 145-161, TTB+, Or, RIC:141c Graded NGC Choice XF Strike 5/5 Surface 3/5 Marks tête laurée à droite Antonin le Pieux assis à gauche sur une chaise curule sur une … [83], In this, the emperor was assisted by five chief lawyers: Lucius Fulvius Aburnius Valens, an author of legal treatises;[85] Lucius Ulpius Marcellus, a prolific writer; and three others. Raoul McLaughlin quotes Aurelius Victor as saying "The Indians, the Bactrians and the Hyrcanians all sent ambassadors to Antoninus. After a seven-day interval (justitium), Marcus and Lucius nominated their father for deification. Les meilleures offres pour ANTONIN le PIEUX - Dupondius - Rome, 157-158 - ANNONE - RIC 993 sont sur eBay Comparez les prix et les spécificités des produits neufs et d'occasion Pleins d'articles en livraison … Grant opines that Antoninus and his officers did act in a resolute manner dealing with frontier disturbances of his time, although conditions for long-lasting peace were not created. 138 – 161 Antonin le Pieux (Titus Aurelius Pius) Antonin le Pieux est né en 86 à Lanuvium, dans le Latium. [10] The Arrii Antonini were an older senatorial family from Italy, very influential during Nerva's reign. The wall, however, was soon gradually decommissioned during the mid-150s and eventually abandoned late during the reign (early 160s), for reasons that are still not quite clear. Antonin le Pieux fut un empereur romain qui régna de 138 à 161. ANTONIN Le PIEUX (138 - 161). Pflaum, prosopographical research of Antoninus' ruling team allows us to grasp the deeply conservative character of the ruling senatorial caste. Antoninus acquired the cognomen Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father,[4] or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. [10], A few months afterwards, on Hadrian's death, he was enthusiastically welcomed to the throne by the Roman people, who, for once, were not disappointed in their anticipation of a happy reign. [113], The first group of people claiming to be an ambassadorial mission of Romans to China was recorded in 166 AD by the Hou Hanshu. [58], There were also some troubles in Dacia Inferior which required the granting of additional powers to the procurator governor and the dispatch of additional soldiers to the province. Jusqu’au milieu du IIe siècle, la principale fête chrétienne ne rappelait donc pas le principal dogme, le dogme fondateur de la religion chrétienne, mais coïncidait avec la grande fête nationale (voire nationaliste) juive ! Aurelia Fadilla (died in 135); she married, Marcus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus (died before 138), died young without issue, Marcus Galerius Aurelius Antoninus (died before 138), died young without issue, Aurelia Fadilla (died in 135), who married, dashed lines indicate adoption; dotted lines indicate love affairs/unmarried relationships, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 18:34. ANTONIN Le Pieux, ANTONINUS Pius, sesterce Rome en 156-157, Tr Pot XX Cos IIII sc, 26,07 grms, RIC 964 TB+/TB; Empire Romain ANTONIN LE PIEUX, ANTONINUS PIUS, ANTONINO PIO Sesterce, sesterz, … [12] Antoninus made few initial changes when he became emperor, leaving intact as far as possible the arrangements instituted by Hadrian. [127], Krzysztof Ulanowski argues that the claims of military inability are exaggerated, considering that although the sources praise Antoninus' love for peace and his efforts "rather to defend, than enlarge the provinces", he could hardly be considered a pacifist, as shown by the conquest of the Lowlands, the building of the Antonine Wall and the expansion of Germania Superior. [86] Maecianus would eventually be chosen to occupy various prefectures (see below) as well as to conduct the legal studies of Marcus Aurelius. jw2019 jw2019 . Antonin le pieux - Buy this stock photo and explore similar images at Adobe Stock It was to Antonius that the Christian apologist Justin Martyr addressed his defense of the Christian faith, reminding him of his father's (Emperor Hadrian's) rule that accusations against Christians required proof. There is more to this argument, given that the Parthians in the East were themselves soon to make no small amount of mischief after Antoninus' passing. Antonin le Pieux (19 septembre 86 à Lanuvium, Latium – 7 mars 161) est un empereur romain, qui régna de 138 à 161. Marcus consented to Antoninus' proposal. Antoninus was born near Lanuvium (modern-day Lanuvio in Italy) to Titus Aurelius Fulvus, consul in 89, and Arria Fadilla. [112] In contrast to their behavior during Antoninus' campaign to deify Hadrian, the senate did not oppose the emperors' wishes. Julia Balbilla a possible lover of Sabina: A. R. Birley (1997). [83] Of these three, the most prominent was Lucius Volusius Maecianus, a former military officer turned by Antoninus into a civil procurator, and who, in view of his subsequent career (discovered on the basis of epigraphical and prosopographical research), was the Emperor's most important legal adviser. [96] It lasted a number of days, and a host of exotic animals were killed, including elephants, giraffes, tigers, rhinoceroses, crocodiles and hippopotami. (Titus Aurelius Pius). Antoninus was an effective administrator, leaving his successors a large surplus in the treasury, expanding free access to drinking water throughout the Empire, encouraging legal conformity, and facilitating the enfranchisement of freed slaves. Antonin le Pieux ( à Lanuvium, Latium - 7 mars 161) est un empereur romain, qui régna de 138 à 161.Par son père Titus Aurelius Fulvus, consul en 89, et son grand-père Titus … [126], German historian Ernst Kornemann has had it in his Römische Geschichte [2 vols., ed. [69], In his dealings with Greek-speaking cities, Antoninus followed the policy adopted by Hadrian of ingratiating himself with local elites, especially with local intellectuals: philosophers, teachers of literature, rhetoricians and physicians were explicitly exempted from any duties involving private spending for civic purposes – a privilege granted by Hadrian that Antoninus confirmed by means of an edict preserved in the Digest (27.1.6.8). Some historians have a less positive view of his reign. [121][122] Roman coins from the reigns of Tiberius to Aurelian have been discovered in Xi'an, China (site of the Han capital Chang'an), although the significantly greater amount of Roman coins unearthed in India suggest the Roman maritime trade for purchasing Chinese silk was centered there, not in China or even the overland Silk Road running through ancient Iran.[123]. [81] That the distinction played no part in subsequent political history – that the personal power of the princeps absorbed his role as office-holder – proves that the autocratic logic of the imperial order had already subsumed the old republican institutions. Il leur avait répondu que ces individus ne devaient nullement être maltraités tant qu’ils ne seraient pas trouvés à comploter contre l’Empire romain. The emperor gave the keynote to his life in the last word that he uttered: when the tribune of the night-watch came to ask the password, he responded, "aequanimitas" (equanimity). Sur ce socle reposait la Colonne de l’empereur Antonin le Pieux, retrouvée en 1703 dans le Campo Marzio, près de Montecitorio, là où la dépouille de l’empereur fut brûlée. In spite of an extensive building directive – the free access of the people of Rome to drinking water was expanded with the construction of aqueducts, not only in Rome but throughout the Empire, as well as bridges and roads – the emperor still managed to leave behind a sizable public treasury of around two and a half million sesterces.

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